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    • IsabelleF

      D3.2: Successful extraction of body-wave data

      Brief description :

      Executive summary: A key goal of the PACIFIC project is to develop methodologies for the extraction of body waves from passive seismic data, for use in the environmentally sustainable environments. Recovering body waves from ambient noise data has proved to be challenging as they are usually weak and ambient noise fields are rich in surface waves. Here we propose and test a method, based on the Radon Transformation, that helps suppress surface waves and enhance reflected body waves. The method exploits the ‘moveout’ differences between reflected body (hyperbolic) and surface waves (linear) and is tested on synthetic 2D & 3D model data prior to its application to ambient noise field data. We refer to it as Radon Correlation. Synthetic tests are very encouraging, showing clear body wave recovery that cannot be seen in raw cross-correlated data. Using these synthetics to have a choice of parameters, we then move to field passive data from the Marathon site within PACIFIC. We generate virtual shot gathers by applying Radon Correlation to single virtual sources into a linear array of receivers. Again, results are very encouraging with clear reflected body wave recovery from the ambient noise data and determined by clear hyperbolic arrivals on the virtual shot gathers. There is a hint that using time windows that contain active blast seismic coda possibly further enhances body wave recovery. Finally, velocity analysis on these virtual shot gathers leads to a P-wave velocity model that compares well with models derived from surface wave dispersion analysis of the same ambient noise data. However, these models are not currently publicly available and hence are not shown here, in this report.

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      • IsabelleF

        D3.1: Deployment complete

        Brief description :

        Executive summary: Permitting of the seismic survey and the acquisition of data are the first steps in WP3, the pilot test of the passive reflection seismic technique in the Marathon deposit. The processing and development stages of the Work Package rely directly on the successful acquisition of ambient seismic noise data from the Marathon test site.
        Between September 17th and October 26th of 2018, at the Marathon test site, a 1025 sensor passive seismic survey was completed. The sensors equipment was rented from SAExploration. 1024 sensors were successfully deployed; however, only 1019 were recovered. The loss of sensors was due to animal activity or being buried by a rock slide.
        The grid design was composed of two overlapping grids, a 416-sensor array and a 609-sensor profile line. The array had a grid spacing of 150m, while the profile line had a grid spacing of 50m. Both grids designs were configured along the main noise source of Lake Superior in the direction of 250deg to the west.
        The sensors selected for the survey were ZL and C1, vertical direction sensors with a 10hz range. Once the sensors were retrieved, they were shipped back to SAExploration for download. The data was successfully downloaded and shipped to Sisprobe for analysis.

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        • IsabelleF

          D1.4: Development of a physical parameter model for seismic wave simulations

          Brief description :

          Executive summary: Active seismic sources such as explosives, air guns and vibroseis generate energetic P-waves well suited for reflection seismic studies. However, they can have negative environmental impacts and are expensive, both of which have motivated the development of passive seismic methods. Passive seismic methods utilise ambient noise from meteorological and anthropogenic activity. They have been successful for surface wave recovery but extracting body waves for reflection imaging is still a challenge. A key goal of the PACIFIC project is to develop methodologies for extracting body waves from passive seismic data, and for using these body waves for subsurface imaging. This report describes the development of synthetic velocity models that characterise the geological structure and seismic reflectivity at the Marathon Cu-PGE prospect Ontario, Canada. Synthetic seismic signals generated in these models will then be used to develop and test processing procedures for body wave recovery and body wave imaging. A first velocity model consists of two vertical sections obtained by interpolation of lithological contacts identified in drillholes. One section is perpendicular to the dip of the main gabbro intrusion, the other is parallel. A second model is obtained by blind 3D interpolation between drillholes and uses velocities measured on hand samples and drill core. Work in progress uses dedicated geological modelling software to generate a 3D block model that honors geological structures and cross-cutting relationships. A recently acquired downhole acoustic log avoids negative velocity biases from microfractures that can be introduced during depressurisation (e.g. of drill core). This will be used to calibrate a new velocity forward model.

           
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          • IsabelleF

            D1.3: Report comparing best practice in active and passive exploration methods

            Brief description :

            Executive Summary: Seismic methods provide high-resolution images of geologic structures hosting mineral deposits and, in a few cases, can be used for direct targeting of deposits. Active reflection techniques have been successfully used in the minerals sphere, especially for structural control on deep targets. Although useful, a disadvantage of this methodology is that it is expensive and logistically difficult in locations without easy access for source generation. In contrast to active seismology, passive methods exploit ambient seismic noise and do not require specific seismic sources. In this report, we compare active and passive seismic methods in general and discuss different data processing sequences that have been used in previous passive seismic studies. The quality of the results in passive seismic methods strongly depends on (1) the spatial-temporal properties of the noise source distribution and (2) the number and disposition of seismic receiver pairs on which the noise correlation is performed. We then discuss how to apply these processing sequences to extract body-waves in the PACIFIC project, with a view to developing reflection seismic images analogous to active reflection seismic work.

             
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            • IsabelleF

              D1.2: Report on the physical properties and seismic characteristics of ores and host rocks

              Brief description :

              Executive summary: The physical properties of rocks and minerals, particularly their density and elasticity, control the velocitywith which they transmit seismic waves. The acoustic impedance, which is the product of density and seismic velocity, is a useful property to characterize different lithologies. Available data indicates that there are strong contrasts in acoustic impedance between common types of rock and, most importantly, between common rocks and ore minerals. These differences provide a basis for relating passive seismic tomographic models with models based on geological and previously acquired geophysical data.

               
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              • IsabelleF

                D1.1: Assessment of successful active seismic processing workflows

                Brief description :

                Executive summary: Across the globe, the mineral industry is seeking new technologies to replace or complement existing geological, geochemical and geophysical methods to improve exploration efficiency at depth and to help design safer and more productive mines. These industries are increasingly using seismic methods for a wide range of commodities including base metals, uranium, diamonds, and precious metals. Seismic methods usually can be used for direct targeting of mineral deposits but particular care must be taken during acquisition and processing of the data. To achieve the best results, different processing sequences based on the target of the project are applied. Here we compare and discuss how such workflows are used when treating active seismic data in order to provide a basis for their use in the development of the passive seismic methods that form the basis of the PACIFIC project.

                 
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                • IsabelleF

                  M. Chmiel, A. Mordret, P. Boué, F. Brenguier, T. Lecocq, R. Courbis, D. Hollis, X. Campman, R....

                  Brief description :

                  Ambient noise multimode Rayleigh and Love wave tomography to determine the shear velocity structure above the Groningen gas field

                  The Groningen gas field is one of the largest gas fields in Europe. The continuous gas extraction led to an induced seismic activity in the area. In order to monitor the seismic activity and study the gas field many permanent and temporary seismic arrays were deployed. In particular, the extraction of the shear wave velocity model is crucial in seismic hazard assessment. Local S-wave velocity-depth profiles allow us the estimation of a potential amplification due to soft sediments.

                  Ambient seismic noise tomography is an interesting alternative to traditional methods that were used in modelling the S-wave velocity. The ambient noise field consists mostly of surface waves, which are sensitive to the Swave and if inverted, they reveal the corresponding S-wave structures.

                  In this study, we present results of a depth inversion of surface waves obtained from the cross-correlation of 1 month of ambient noise data from four flexible networks located in the Groningen area. Each block consisted of about 400 3-C stations. We compute group velocity maps of Rayleigh and Love waves using a straight-ray surface wave tomography. We also extract clear higher modes of Love and Rayleigh waves.

                  The S-wave velocity model is obtained with a joint inversion of Love and Rayleigh waves using the Neighbourhood Algorithm. In order to improve the depth inversion, we use the mean phase velocity curves and the higher modes of Rayleigh and Love waves. Moreover, we use the depth of the base of the North Sea formation as a hard constraint. This information provides an additional constraint for depth inversion, which reduces the S-wave velocity uncertainties.

                  The final S-wave velocity models reflect the geological structures up to 1 km depth and in perspective can be used in seismic risk modelling.

                  Type of information :
                  • IsabelleF

                    F. Brenguier, P. Boué, Y. Ben‐Zion, F. Vernon, C.W. Johnson, A. Mordret, et al. (2019). Train...

                    Brief description :

                    Train traffic as a powerful noise source for monitoring active faults with seismic interferometry.

                    Laboratory experiments report that detectable seismic velocity changes should occur in the vicinity of fault zones prior to earthquakes. However, operating permanent active seismic sources to monitor natural faults at seismogenic depth is found to be nearly impossible to achieve. We show that seismic noise generated by vehicle traffic, and especially heavy freight trains, can be turned into a powerful repetitive seismic source to continuously probe the Earth's crust at a few kilometers depth. Results of an exploratory seismic experiment in Southern California demonstrate that correlations of train‐generated seismic signals allow daily reconstruction of direct P body waves probing the San Jacinto Fault down to 4‐km depth. This new approach may facilitate monitoring most of the San Andreas Fault system using the railway and highway network of California.

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                    • IsabelleF

                      Florent Brenguier, Aurélien Mordret, Richard Lynch, Roméo Courbis, Xander Campbell, Pierre Boué,...

                      Brief description :

                      Monitoring of fields using body and surface waves reconstructed from passive seismic ambient noise

                      There are important economic, environmental and societal reasons for monitoring production from oil, gas and geothermal fields. Unfortunately, standard microseismic monitoring is often not useful due to low levels of microseismicity. We propose to use body and surface waves reconstructed from ambient seismic noise for such monitoring. In this work, we use seismic data recorded from a dense sensor array at the Groningen gas field in northern Holland and show how direct P-waves can be extracted from the ambient noise cross correlations and then used to monitor seismic velocity variations over time. This approach has advantages over the use of coda wave interferometry due to the ability to localise such changes in the subsurface. We show how both direct and refracted (head) P-waves as well as Rayleigh surface waves can be used for such field monitoring, with changes of ∼1% being resolved. Both fundamental and first overtone Rayleigh waves are used to localise such changes, which correspond nicely to known geology to within 100 m.

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                      • IsabelleF

                        Tomoya Takano, Florent Brenguier, Michel Campillo, Aline Peltier, Takeshi Nishimura, Noise-based...

                        Brief description :

                        Noise-based passive ballistic wave seismic monitoring on an active volcano

                        Monitoring temporal changes of volcanic interiors is important to understand magma, fluid pressurization and transport leading to eruptions. Noise-based passive seismic monitoring using coda wave interferometry is a powerful tool to detect and monitor very slight changes in the mechanical properties of volcanic edifices. However, the complexity of coda waves limits our ability to properly image localized changes in seismic properties within volcanic edifices. In this work, we apply a novel passive ballistic wave seismic monitoring approach to examine the active Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion island). Using noise correlations between two distant dense seismic arrays, we find a 2.4 per cent velocity increase and −0.6 per cent velocity decrease of Rayleigh waves at frequency bands of 0.5–1 and 1–3 Hz, respectively. We also observe a −2.2 per cent velocity decrease of refracted P waves at 550 m depth at the 6–12 Hz band. We interpret the polarity differences of seismic velocity changes at different frequency bands and for different wave types as being due to strain change complexity at depth associated with subtle pressurization of the shallow magma reservoir. Our results show that velocity changes measured using ballistic waves provide complementary information to interpret temporal changes of the seismic properties within volcanic edifices.

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