D1.3: Report comparing best practice in active and passive exploration methods

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Executive Summary: Seismic methods provide high-resolution images of geologic structures hosting mineral deposits and, in a few cases, can be used for direct targeting of deposits. Active reflection techniques have been successfully used in the minerals sphere, especially for structural control on deep targets. Although useful, a disadvantage of this methodology is that it is expensive and logistically difficult in locations without easy access for source generation. In contrast to active seismology, passive methods exploit ambient seismic noise and do not require specific seismic sources. In this report, we compare active and passive seismic methods in general and discuss different data processing sequences that have been used in previous passive seismic studies. The quality of the results in passive seismic methods strongly depends on (1) the spatial-temporal properties of the noise source distribution and (2) the number and disposition of seismic receiver pairs on which the noise correlation is performed. We then discuss how to apply these processing sequences to extract body-waves in the PACIFIC project, with a view to developing reflection seismic images analogous to active reflection seismic work.

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